Fahriye Evcen debuted on television in a supporting role in the Turkish drama series ‘Asla unutma’ and appeared in a couple episodes of the mini-series ‘Hasret’ the following year. She subsequently landed the leading role of Necla Tekin Aydınoğlu in the television series ‘Yaprak Dökümü’ (2006-10) based on the novel by Reşat Nuri Güntekin. Her film debut was in a leading role in the 2008 Turkish drama film ‘Cennet’ (‘The Heaven’), which was followed by another leading role in the romantic comedy ‘Aşk Tutulması’ (‘The Goal of My Life’) the same year. In 2010, she was among the main casts in the Turkish-German thriller film ‘Takiye: Allah Yolunda’ (‘Spur des terrors takiye’) and the Turkish-Italian comedy film ‘Sinyora Enrica ile İtalyan Olmak’.
In 2011, Evcen played the lead role of Zeynep Karaman in all nine episodes of the Turkish romantic thriller ‘Yalanci Bahar’. The next year, she starred as Leyla in the romantic fantasy film ‘Evim Sensin’ and portrayed Mehpare in the TV mini-series ‘Veda’. During 2013-14, she played the main character Feride in the Turkish historical romantic drama series ‘Çalıkuşu’, based on the novel of the same name by Reşat Nuri Güntekin. She was one of the main casts in the Turkish drama series ‘Kurt Seyit ve Şura’ in 2014. The following year, she acted opposite Burak Özçivit in the drama film ‘Aşk Sana Benzer’, which was followed by another lead role in the romance film ‘Sonsuz Ask’ opposite Murat Yıldırım in 2017. The same year, she appeared opposite Engin Akyürek in the lead role of Selvi Nardan in the drama series ‘Ölene Kadar’. Her most recent television appearance was in the Turkish historical action drama series ‘Alparslan: Büyük Selçuklu’, which premiered in November 2021 and aired its most-recent episode on May 30, 2022.